Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990�2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Disease, GBD 2015 and Incidence, Injury and Collaborators, Prevalence and Vos, T. and Allen, C. and Arora, M. and Barber, R.M. and Brown, A. and Carter, A. and Casey, D.C. and Charlson, F.J. and Chen, A.Z. and Coggeshall, M. and Cornaby, L. and Dandona, L. and Dicker, D.J. and Dilegge, T. and Erskine, H.E. and Ferrari, A.J. and Fitzmaurice, C. and Fleming, T. and Forouzanfar, M.H. and Fullman, N. and Goldberg, E.M. and Graetz, N. and Haagsma, J.A. and Hay, S.I. and Johnson, C.O. and Kassebaum, N.J. and Kawashima, T. and Kemmer, L. and Khalil, I.A. and Kyu, H.H. and Leung, J. and Lim, S.S. and Lopez, A.D. and Marczak, L. and Mokdad, A.H. and Naghavi, M. and Nguyen, G. and Nsoesie, E. and Olsen, H. and Pigott, D.M. and Pinho, C. and Rankin, Z. and Reinig, N. and Sandar, L. and Smith, A. and Stanaway, J. and Steiner, C. and Teeple, S. and Thomas, B.A. and Troeger, C. and Wagner, J.A. and Wang, H. and Wanga, V. and Whiteford, H.A. and Zoeckler, L. and Alexander, L.T. and Anderson, G.M. and 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Søreide, K. and Sliwa, K. and Stein, D.J. and Soriano, J.B. and Sposato, L.A. and Sreeramareddy, C.T. and Stathopoulou, V. and Stovner, L.J. and Steinke, S. and Stroumpoulis, K. and Sunguya, B.F. and Swaminathan, S. and Sykes, B.L. and Tabarés-Seisdedos, R. and Takala, J.S. and Tanne, D. and Terkawi, A.S. and Tuzcu, E.M. and Thomson, A.J. and Thurston, G.D. and Tobe-Gai, R. and Topor-Madry, R. and Topouzis, F. and Truelsen, T. and Tsala Dimbuene, Z. and Tsilimbaris, M. and Tyrovolas, S. and Ukwaja, K.N. and Uneke, C.J. and Uthman, O.A. and van Gool, C.H. and Vasankari, T. and Venketasubramanian, N. and Violante, F.S. and Vladimirov, S.K. and Vlassov, V.V. and Waller, S.G. and Weichenthal, S. and White, R.A. and Williams, H.C. and Wubshet, M. and Xavier, D. and Xu, G. and Yan, L.L. and Yano, Y. and Yip, P. and Yonemoto, N. and Younis, M.Z. and Yu, C. and Zaidi, Z. and Zaki, M.E. and Zeeb, H. and Zuhlke, L.J. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990�2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. This online publication has been corrected.


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Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60�900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index SDI) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. Findings We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17·2 billion, 95% uncertainty interval UI 15·4�19·2 billion) and diarrhoeal diseases (2·39 billion, 2·30�2·50 billion). Eight causes of chronic disease and injury each affected more than 10% of the world's population in 2015: permanent caries, tension-type headache, iron-deficiency anaemia, age-related and other hearing loss, migraine, genital herpes, refraction and accommodation disorders, and ascariasis. The impairment that affected the greatest number of people in 2015 was anaemia, with 2·36 billion (2·35�2·37 billion) individuals affected. The second and third leading impairments by number of individuals affected were hearing loss and vision loss, respectively. Between 2005 and 2015, there was little change in the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20�30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most countries. The leading cause was sense organ disorders in 22 countries in Asia and Africa and one in central Latin America; diabetes in four countries in Oceania; HIV/AIDS in three southern sub-Saharan African countries; collective violence and legal intervention in two north African and Middle Eastern countries; iron-deficiency anaemia in Somalia and Venezuela; depression in Uganda; onchoceriasis in Liberia; and other neglected tropical diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is increasing the number of people living with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Shifts in the epidemiological profile driven by socioeconomic change also contribute to the continued increase in years lived with disability (YLDs) as well as the rate of increase in YLDs. Despite limitations imposed by gaps in data availability and the variable quality of the data available, the standardised and comprehensive approach of the GBD study provides opportunities to examine broad trends, compare those trends between countries or subnational geographies, benchmark against locations at similar stages of development, and gauge the strength or weakness of the estimates available. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license

Item Type: Article
Subjects: WA Public Health
Depositing User: eprints admin
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2018 03:28
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2019 09:57

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