An overview of Betacoronaviruses-associated severe respiratory syndromes, focusing on sex-type-specific immune responses

Rahimi, G. and Rahimi, B. and Panahi, M. and Abkhiz, S. and Saraygord-Afshari, N. and Milani, M. and Alizadeh, E. (2021) An overview of Betacoronaviruses-associated severe respiratory syndromes, focusing on sex-type-specific immune responses. International Immunopharmacology, 92.


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Emerging beta-coronaviruses (β-CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID19) are responsible for acute respiratory illnesses in human. The epidemiological features of the SARS, MERS, and new COVID-19 have revealed sex-dependent variations in the infection, frequency, treatment, and fatality rates of these syndromes. Females are likely less susceptible to viral infections, perhaps due to their steroid hormone levels, the impact of X-linked genes, and the sex-based immune responses. Although mostly inactive, the X chromosome makes the female's immune system more robust. The extra immune-regulatory genes of the X chromosome are associated with lower levels of viral load and decreased infection rate. Moreover, a higher titer of the antibodies and their longer blood circulation half-life are involved in a more durable immune protection in females. The activation rate of the immune cells and the production of TLR7 and IFN are more prominent in females. Although the bi-allelic expression of the immune regulatory genes can sometimes lead to autoimmune reactions, the higher titer of TLR7 in females is further associated with a stronger anti-viral immune response. Considering these sex-related differences and the similarities between the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, we will discuss them in immune responses against the β-CoVs-associated syndromes. We aim to provide information on sex-based disease susceptibility and response. A better understanding of the evasion strategies of pathogens and the host immune responses can provide worthful insights into immunotherapy, and vaccine development approaches. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Subjects: WF Respiratory System
Depositing User: eprints admin
Date Deposited: 14 Mar 2021 04:28
Last Modified: 14 Mar 2021 04:28

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