Organic dots (O-dots) for theranostic applications: preparation and surface engineering

Dezfuli, A.S. and Kohan, E. and Tehrani Fateh, S. and Alimirzaei, N. and Arzaghi, H. and Hamblin, M.R. (2021) Organic dots (O-dots) for theranostic applications: preparation and surface engineering. RSC Advances, 11 (4). pp. 2253-2291.


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Organic dots is a term used to represent materials including graphene quantum dots and carbon quantum dots because they rely on the presence of other atoms (O, H, and N) for their photoluminescence or fluorescence properties. They generally have a small size (as low as 2.5 nm), and show good photostability under prolonged irradiation. The excitation and emission wavelengths of O-dots can be tailored according to their synthetic procedure, where although their quantum yield is quite low compared with organic dyes, this is partly compensated by their large absorption coefficients. A wide range of strategies have been used to modify the surface of O-dots for passivation, improving their solubility and biocompatibility, and allowing the attachment of targeting moieties and therapeutic cargos. Hybrid nanostructures based on O-dots have been used for theranostic applications, particularly for cancer imaging and therapy. This review covers the synthesis, physics, chemistry, and characterization of O-dots. Their applications cover the prevention of protein fibril formation, and both controlled and targeted drug and gene delivery. Multifunctional therapeutic and imaging platforms have been reported, which combine four or more separate modalities, frequently including photothermal or photodynamic therapy and imaging and drug release. © 2021 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biocompatibility; Carbon Quantum Dots; Controlled drug delivery; Gene transfer; Graphene quantum dots; Medical imaging; Nanocrystals; Photodynamic therapy; Semiconductor quantum dots; Theranostics, Emission wavelength; Fluorescence properties; Hybrid nanostructures; Large absorption coefficient; Photo-stability; Protein fibrils; Surface engineering; Synthetic procedures, Targeted drug delivery
Subjects: QT Physiology
Depositing User: eprints admin
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2021 05:32
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2021 05:32

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