Virtual reality games for rehabilitation of upper extremities in stroke patients

Shahmoradi, L. and Almasi, S. and Ahmadi, H. and Bashiri, A. and Azadi, T. and Mirbagherie, A. and Ansari, N.N. and Honarpishe, R. (2021) Virtual reality games for rehabilitation of upper extremities in stroke patients. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 26. pp. 113-122.

[img] Text
Virtual reality games for rehabilitation of upper extremities in stroke patients.pdf

Download (879kB)
Official URL:


Introduction: Stroke is one of the main causes of physical disability in which doing frequent and early exercise is imperative for rehabilitation. Virtual reality gaming has a high potential in rehabilitation leading to increased performance of patients. This study aimed to develop, validate and examine virtual reality games in chronic stroke patients. Methods: This was a single before-after study. To determine the movements and content of games, 9 physiotherapists and 11 game designers were asked to participate in a questionnaire-based survey. Then, to evaluate the impact of games on rehabilitation, patients (N = 10; mean age = 52 ± 4.38) with chronic stroke were asked to play the games three times a week for four weeks. Outcomes included measurement of the ability to perform shoulder, elbow and wrist movements was performed using goniometric instrument, Modified Motor Assessment Scale (MMAS) was used to assess the functional ability of patients and muscle spasticity, and brunnstrom's stages of recovery test was also used to assess spastic and involuntary muscle movement. Results: Games have positive effects on the horizontal abduction of shoulder (16.26 ± 23.94, P = 0.02), horizontal adduction of shoulder (59.24 ± 74.76, P = 0.00), supination of wrist (10.68 ± 53.52, P = 0.02), elbow flexion (0.1 ± 1.5, P = 0.00), and wrist flexion (0.06 ± 1.34, P = 0.03). However, they had no effects on the flexion of shoulder, flexion of elbow, extension of elbow, and extension of wrist (p-value> 0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that games improve the range of motion of the participants in terms of horizontal abduction and abduction of the shoulder, elbow flexion, and supination and flexion of the wrist. Due to the small sample size in this study, we recommend more studies with larger samples and a control group. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 0
Uncontrolled Keywords: adult; aged; arm movement; Article; brunnstrom stages of recovery test; cerebrovascular accident; clinical article; controlled study; cross-sectional study; demography; elbow flexion; female; game; goniometry; horizontal abduction of shoulder; horizontal adduction of shoulder; human; male; Modified Motor Assessment Scale; movement (physiology); physiotherapist; scoring system; spasticity; stroke rehabilitation; supination; supination of wrist; virtual reality; wrist flexion
Subjects: WL Nervous System
WE Musculoskeletal System
Depositing User: eprints admin
Date Deposited: 02 Nov 2022 05:26
Last Modified: 02 Nov 2022 05:26

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item