The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

Fitzmaurice, C. and Dicker, D. and Pain, A. and Hamavid, H. and Moradi-Lakeh, M. and MacIntyre, M.F. and Allen, C. and Hansen, G. and Woodbrook, R. and Wolfe, C. and Hamadeh, R.R. and Moore, A. and Werdecker, A. and Gessner, B.D. and Te Ao, B. and McMahon, B. and Karimkhani, C. and Yu, C. and Cooke, G.S. and Schwebel, D.C. and Carpenter, D.O. and Pereira, D.M. and Nash, D. and Kazi, D.S. and De Leo, D. and Plass, D. and Ukwaja, K.N. and Thurston, G.D. and Yun Jin, K. and Simard, E.P. and Mills, E. and Park, E.-K. and Catalá-López, F. and DeVeber, G. and Gotay, C. and Khan, G. and Hosgood, III and Santos, I.S. and Leasher, J.L. and Singh, J. and Leigh, J. and Jonas, J.B. and Sanabria, J. and Beardsley, J. and Jacobsen, K.H. and Takahashi, K. and Franklin, R.C. and Ronfani, L. and Montico, M. and Naldi, L. and Tonelli, M. and Geleijnse, J. and Petzold, M. and Shrime, M.G. and Younis, M. and Yonemoto, N. and Breitborde, N. and Yip, P. and Pourmalek, F. and Lotufo, P.A. and Esteghamati, A. and Hankey, G.J. and Ali, R. and Lunevicius, R. and Malekzadeh, R. and Dellavalle, R. and Weintraub, R. and Lucas, R. and Hay, R. and Rojas-Rueda, D. and Westerman, R. and Sepanlou, S.G. and Nolte, S. and Patten, S. and Weichenthal, S. and Abera, S.F. and Fereshtehnejad, S.-M. and Shiue, I. and Driscoll, T. and Vasankari, T. and Alsharif, U. and Rahimi-Movaghar, V. and Vlassov, V.V. and Marcenes, W.S. and Mekonnen, W. and Melaku, Y.A. and Yano, Y. and Artaman, A. and Campos, I. and MacLachlan, J. and Mueller, U. and Kim, D. and Trillini, M. and Eshrati, B. and Williams, H.C. and Shibuya, K. and Dandona, R. and Murthy, K. and Cowie, B. and Amare, A.T. and Antonio, C.A. and Castañeda-Orjuela, C. and Van Gool, C.H. and Violante, F. and Oh, I.-H. and Deribe, K. and Soreide, K. and Knibbs, L. and Kereselidze, M. and Green, M. and Cardenas, R. and Roy, N. and Tillmann, T. and Li, Y. and Krueger, H. and Monasta, L. and Dey, S. and Sheikhbahaei, S. and Hafezi-Nejad, N. and Kumar, G.A. and Sreeramareddy, C.T. and Dandona, L. and Wang, H. and Vollset, S.E. and Mokdad, A. and Salomon, J.A. and Lozano, R. and Vos, T. and Forouzanfar, M. and Lopez, A. and Murray, C. and Naghavi, M. (2015) The Global Burden of Cancer 2013. JAMA Oncology, 1 (4). pp. 505-527.


Download (10MB) | Preview
Official URL:


IMPORTANCE: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS: In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases, 8.2 million deaths, and 196.3 million DALYs. Prostate cancer was the leading cause for cancer incidence (1.4 million) for men and breast cancer for women (1.8 million). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer was the leading cause for cancer death in men and women, with 1.6 million deaths. For men, TBL cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (24.9 million). For women, breast cancer was the leading cause of DALYs (13.1 million). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 100 000 and age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) per 100 000 for both sexes in 2013 were higher in developing vs developed countries for stomach cancer (ASIR, 17 vs 14; ASDR, 15 vs 11), liver cancer (ASIR, 15 vs 7; ASDR, 16 vs 7), esophageal cancer (ASIR, 9 vs 4; ASDR, 9 vs 4), cervical cancer (ASIR, 8 vs 5; ASDR, 4 vs 2), lip and oral cavity cancer (ASIR, 7 vs 6; ASDR, 2 vs 2), and nasopharyngeal cancer (ASIR, 1.5 vs 0.4; ASDR, 1.2 vs 0.3). Between 1990 and 2013, ASIRs for all cancers combined (except nonmelanoma skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma) increased by more than 10 in 113 countries and decreased by more than 10 in 12 of 188 countries. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cancer poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and incidence rates have increased in most countries since 1990. The trend is a particular threat to developing nations with health systems that are ill-equipped to deal with complex and expensive cancer treatments. The annual update on the Global Burden of Cancer will provide all stakeholders with timely estimates to guide policy efforts in cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and palliation. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 841
Subjects: QZ Pathology
Depositing User: eprints admin
Date Deposited: 02 Jul 2018 08:11
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2019 08:10

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item