Mechanisms of inflammatory responses to radiation and normal tissues toxicity: clinical implications

Najafi, M. and Motevaseli, E. and Shirazi, A. and Geraily, G. and Rezaeyan, A. and Norouzi, F. and Rezapoor, S. and Abdollahi, H. (2018) Mechanisms of inflammatory responses to radiation and normal tissues toxicity: clinical implications. International Journal of Radiation Biology, 94 (4). pp. 335-356.

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Purpose: Cancer treatment is one of the most challenging diseases in the present era. Among a few modalities for cancer therapy, radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in more than half of all treatments alone or combined with other cancer treatment modalities. Management of normal tissue toxicity induced by radiation is one of the most important limiting factors for an appropriate radiation treatment course. The evaluation of mechanisms of normal tissue toxicity has shown that immune responses especially inflammatory responses play a key role in both early and late side effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). DNA damage and cell death, as well as damage to some organelles such as mitochondria initiate several signaling pathways that result in the response of immune cells. Massive cell damage which is a common phenomenon following exposure to a high dose of IR cause secretion of a lot of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and chemokines. These mediators initiate different changes in normal tissues that may continue for a long time after irradiation. In this study, we reviewed the mechanisms of inflammatory responses to IR that are involved in normal tissue toxicity and considered as the most important limiting factors in radiotherapy. Also, we introduced some agents that have been proposed for management of these responses. Conclusions: The early inflammation during the radiation treatment is often a limiting factor in radiotherapy. In addition to the limiting factors, chronic inflammatory responses may increase the risk of second primary cancers through continuous free radical production, attenuation of tumor suppressor genes, and activation of oncogenes. Moreover, these effects may influence non-irradiated tissues through a mechanism named bystander effect. © 2018, Copyright © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group LLC.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 5
Subjects: QS Human Anatomy
Depositing User: eprints admin
Date Deposited: 30 Dec 2018 08:26
Last Modified: 30 Dec 2018 08:26

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