A comparative study of characteristics and risky behaviors among the iranian opium and opium dross addicts

Noohi, S. and Azar, M. and Heshmatzade Behzadi, A. and Sedaghati, M. and Akbari Panahi, S. and Dehghan, N. and Honarbakhsh, Y. and Akasheh, A. and Tahoori, A. and Wilson, D. (2011) A comparative study of characteristics and risky behaviors among the iranian opium and opium dross addicts. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 5 (1). pp. 74-78.

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Background: Iran ranks first per capita in the use of opiates, but we have little information about possible differences regarding the 2 most commonly used illicit drugs, namely opium and its dross (residue). Design: This is a cross-sectional study. Setting: A cross-sectional study about drug abuse and drug dependence in Iran was conducted from April 2006 to August 2008 in the prisons of 28 Iranian provinces, in the treatment centers, and in the streets. Participants: To pursue the objectives of this research, participants included 2979 opiate addicts including opium users (n = 2636) and dross users (n = 343), who were not significantly different by gender (P = 0.269) or age (P = 0.452). Measurements: An anonymous questionnaire was completed through an interview that gathered sociodemographic characteristics and information about some high-risk behaviors. Result: By the end of the study, we concluded that dross addicts, in comparison with opium addicts, were mostly immigrants from rural areas to urban areas (P = 0.031 X2 test, 95 confidence interval CI), mostly uneducated, illiterate, or semiliterate (P = 0.04 X2 test, 95% CI), had illegal occupations (P = 0.048 X2 test, 95% CI), were cigarette smokers (P < 0.000 X2 test, 95% CI), and had experienced drug injections (P = 0.032 X2 test, 95% CI) and drug overdose (P = 0.007 X2 test, 95% CI). They also had a history of hospital admission within the preceding year because of drug overdose (P < 0.000) and a record of being arrested and jailed in the past year (P = 0.028 =2 test, 95% CI). Conclusion: These results indicated the need for more intensive and effective care for the opioid addicts in Iran. © 2011 American Society of Addiction Medicine.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: cited By 7
Uncontrolled Keywords: opiate, adult; article; cigarette smoking; comparative study; controlled study; cross-sectional study; demography; drug overdose; ethnic group; female; high risk behavior; hospital admission; human; immigrant; interview; Iran; Iranian; major clinical study; male; opiate addiction; questionnaire; rural area; sex difference; social aspect; urban area, Adult; Crime; Cross-Sectional Studies; Educational Status; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Iran; Male; Middle Aged; Opioid-Related Disorders; Opium; Overdose; Patient Admission; Prisons; Risk-Taking; Rural Population; Substance Abuse, Intravenous; Urban Population; Young Adult
Subjects: WM Psychiatry
Depositing User: somayeh pourmorteza
Date Deposited: 06 Jan 2019 06:55
Last Modified: 06 Jan 2019 06:55
URI: http://eprints.iums.ac.ir/id/eprint/7454

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