Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980�2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Mortality, GBD 2015 and of Death Collaborators, Causes and Wang, H. and Naghavi, M. and Allen, C. and Barber, R.M. and Carter, A. and Casey, D.C. and Charlson, F.J. and Chen, A.Z. and Coates, M.M. and Coggeshall, M. and Dandona, L. and Dicker, D.J. and Erskine, H.E. and Ferrari, A.J. and Fitzmaurice, C. and Foreman, K. and Forouzanfar, M.H. and Fraser, M.S. and Fullman, N. and Goldberg, E.M. and Graetz, N. and Haagsma, J.A. and Hay, S.I. and Huynh, C. and Johnson, C.O. and Kassebaum, N.J. and Kulikoff, X.R. and Kutz, M. and Kyu, H.H. and Larson, H.J. and Leung, J. and Lim, S.S. and Lind, M. and Lozano, R. and Marquez, N. and Mikesell, J. and Mokdad, A.H. and Mooney, M.D. and Nguyen, G. and Nsoesie, E. and Pigott, D.M. and Pinho, C. and Roth, G.A. and Sandar, L. and Silpakit, N. and Sligar, A. and Sorensen, R.J.D. and Stanaway, J. and Steiner, C. and Teeple, S. and Thomas, B.A. and Troeger, C. and VanderZanden, A. and Vollset, S.E. and Wanga, V. and Whiteford, H.A. and Wolock, T. and Zoeckler, L. and Achoki, T. and Afshin, A. and Alexander, L.T. and Anderson, G.M. and Bell, B. and Biryukov, S. and Blore, J.D. and Brown, A. and Brown, J. and Cercy, K. and Chew, A. and Cohen, A.J. and Daoud, F. and Dossou, E. and Estep, K. and Flaxman, A. and Friedman, J. and Frostad, J. and Godwin, W.W. and Hancock, J. and Kemmer, L. and Khalil, I.A. and Liu, P.Y. and Masiye, F. and Millear, A. and Mirarefin, M. and Misganaw, A. and Moradi-Lakeh, M. and Morgan, K. and Ng, M. and Pain, A. and Quame-Amaglo, J. and Rao, P. and Reitsma, M.B. and Shackelford, K.A. and Sur, P. and Wagner, J.A. and Vos, T. and Lopez, A.D. and Murray, C.J.L. and Ellenbogen, R.G. and Mock, C.N. and Quistberg, D.A. and Anderson, B.O. and Blosser, C.D. and Futran, N.D. and Heckbert, S.R. and Jensen, P.N. and Montine, T.J. and Tirschwell, D.L. and Watkins, D.A. and Bhutta, Z.A. and Nisar, M.I. and Akseer, N. and Alam, N.K.M. and Knibbs, L.D. and Lalloo, R. and Gouda, H.N. and McGrath, J.J. and Jeemon, P. and Dandona, R. and Kumar, G.A. and Gething, P.W. and Cooper, C. and Darby, S.C. and Deribew, A. and Ali, R. and Bennett, D.A. and Jha, V. and Rahimi, K. and Kinfu, Y. and Faghmous, I.D.A. and Langan, S.M. and McKee, M. and Murthy, G.V.S. and Pearce, N. and Roberts, B. and Campos-Nonato, I.R. and Campuzano, J.C. and Gomez-Dantes, H. and Heredia-Pi, I.B. and Mejia-Rodriguez, F. and Montañez Hernandez, J.C. and Montero, P. and Rios Blancas, M.J. and Servan-Mori, E.E. and Villalpando, S. and Duan, L. and Liu, S. and Wang, L. and Ye, P. and Liang, X. and Yu, S. and Mensah, G.A. and Salomon, J.A. and Thorne-Lyman, A.L. and Ajala, O.N. and Bärnighausen, T. and Ding, E.L. and Farvid, M.S. and Wagner, G.R. and James, P. and Osman, M. and Shrime, M.G. and Fitchett, J.R.A. and Knudsen, A.K. and Ellingsen, C.L. and Krog, N.H. and Savic, M. and Hailu, A.D. and Norheim, O.F. and Abate, K.H. and Gebrehiwot, T.T. and Gebremedhin, A.T. and Abbafati, C. and Abbas, K.M. and Abd-Allah, F. and Abera, S.F. and 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Yonemoto, N. and Yonga, G. and Younis, M.Z. and Zaidi, Z. and Zaki, M.E. and Zannad, F. and Zavala, D.E. and Zeeb, H. and Zonies, D. and Zuhlke, L.J. (2016) Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980�2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 388 (10053). pp. 1459-1544.


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Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14�294 geography�year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95 uncertainty interval 61·4�61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5�72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7�17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5�70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1 (2·6�5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0 (15·8�18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1 (12·6�16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1 (11·9�14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1, 39·1�44·6), malaria (43·1, 34·7�51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8, 24·8�34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1, 19·3�37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146�000 deaths, 118�000�183�000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393�000 deaths, 228�000�532�000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost YLLs) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death. Interpretation At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license

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Depositing User: M.S Fatemeh Abdi
Date Deposited: 06 Jan 2019 08:32
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